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Cross-platform colored terminal text.

Project description

Colorama

Makes ANSI escape character sequences (for producing colored terminal text andcursor positioning) work under MS Windows.

PyPI for releases ·Github for source ·Colorama for enterprise on Tidelift

If you find Colorama useful, pleaseto the authors. Thank you!

Description

ANSI escape character sequences have long been used to produce colored terminaltext and cursor positioning on Unix and Macs. Colorama makes this work onWindows, too, by wrapping stdout, stripping ANSI sequences it finds (whichwould appear as gobbledygook in the output), and converting them into theappropriate win32 calls to modify the state of the terminal. On other platforms,Colorama does nothing.

This has the upshot of providing a simple cross-platform API for printingcolored terminal text from Python, and has the happy side-effect that existingapplications or libraries which use ANSI sequences to produce colored output onLinux or Macs can now also work on Windows, simply by callingcolorama.init().

An alternative approach is to install ansi.sys on Windows machines, whichprovides the same behaviour for all applications running in terminals. Coloramais intended for situations where that isn’t easy (e.g., maybe your app doesn’thave an installer.)

Demo scripts in the source code repository print some colored text usingANSI sequences. Compare their output under Gnome-terminal’s built in ANSIhandling, versus on Windows Command-Prompt using Colorama:

These screenshots show that, on Windows, Colorama does not support ANSI ‘dimtext’; it looks the same as ‘normal text’.

Usage

Initialisation

Applications should initialise Colorama using:

On Windows, calling init() will filter ANSI escape sequences out of anytext sent to stdout or stderr, and replace them with equivalent Win32calls.

On other platforms, calling init() has no effect (unless you request otheroptional functionality; see “Init Keyword Args”, below). By design, this permitsapplications to call init() unconditionally on all platforms, after whichANSI output should just work.

To stop using Colorama before your program exits, simply call deinit().This will restore stdout and stderr to their original values, so thatColorama is disabled. To resume using Colorama again, call reinit(); it ischeaper than calling init() again (but does the same thing).

Colored Output

Cross-platform printing of colored text can then be done using Colorama’sconstant shorthand for ANSI escape sequences:

…or simply by manually printing ANSI sequences from your own code:

…or, Colorama can be used in conjunction with existing ANSI librariessuch as the venerable Termcoloror the fabulous Blessings.This is highly recommended for anything more than trivial coloring:

Available formatting constants are:

Style.RESET_ALL resets foreground, background, and brightness. Colorama willperform this reset automatically on program exit.

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Cursor Positioning

ANSI codes to reposition the cursor are supported. See demos/demo06.py foran example of how to generate them.

Init Keyword Args

init() accepts some **kwargs to override default behaviour.

init(autoreset=False):

If you find yourself repeatedly sending reset sequences to turn off colorchanges at the end of every print, then init(autoreset=True) willautomate that:

init(strip=None):
Pass True or False to override whether ANSI codes should bestripped from the output. The default behaviour is to strip if on Windowsor if output is redirected (not a tty).
init(convert=None):
Pass True or False to override whether to convert ANSI codes in theoutput into win32 calls. The default behaviour is to convert if on Windowsand output is to a tty (terminal).
init(wrap=True):

On Windows, Colorama works by replacing sys.stdout and sys.stderrwith proxy objects, which override the .write() method to do their work.If this wrapping causes you problems, then this can be disabled by passinginit(wrap=False). The default behaviour is to wrap if autoreset orstrip or convert are True.

When wrapping is disabled, colored printing on non-Windows platforms willcontinue to work as normal. To do cross-platform colored output, you canuse Colorama’s AnsiToWin32 proxy directly:

Recognised ANSI Sequences

ANSI sequences generally take the form:

Where <param> is an integer, and <command> is a single letter. Zero ormore params are passed to a <command>. If no params are passed, it isgenerally synonymous with passing a single zero. No spaces exist in thesequence; they have been inserted here simply to read more easily.

The only ANSI sequences that Colorama converts into win32 calls are:

Multiple numeric params to the 'm' command can be combined into a singlesequence:

All other ANSI sequences of the form ESC [ <param> ; <param> ... <command>are silently stripped from the output on Windows.

Any other form of ANSI sequence, such as single-character codes or alternativeinitial characters, are not recognised or stripped. It would be cool to addthem though. Let me know if it would be useful for you, via the Issues onGitHub.

Status & Known Problems

I’ve personally only tested it on Windows XP (CMD, Console2), Ubuntu(gnome-terminal, xterm), and OS X.

Some presumably valid ANSI sequences aren’t recognised (see details below),but to my knowledge nobody has yet complained about this. Puzzling.

See outstanding issues and wish-list:https://github.com/tartley/colorama/issues

If anything doesn’t work for you, or doesn’t do what you expected or hoped for,I’d love to hear about it on that issues list, would be delighted by patches,and would be happy to grant commit access to anyone who submits a working patchor two.

License

Copyright Jonathan Hartley & Arnon Yaari, 2013-2020. BSD 3-Clause license; seeLICENSE file.

Development

Help and fixes welcome!

PEP 596, 3.9 Release Schedule

Tested on CPython 2.7, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7 and 3.8.

No requirements other than the standard library.Development requirements are captured in requirements-dev.txt.

To create and populate a virtual environment:

To run tests:

If you use nose to run the tests, you must pass the -s flag; otherwise,nosetests applies its own proxy to stdout, which confuses the unittests.

Professional support

Professional support for colorama is available as part of theTidelift Subscription.Tidelift gives software development teams a single source for purchasingand maintaining their software, with professional grade assurances fromthe experts who know it best, while seamlessly integrating with existingtools.

Thanks

  • Marc Schlaich (schlamar) for a setup.py fix for Python2.5.
  • Marc Abramowitz, reported & fixed a crash on exit with closed stdout,providing a solution to issue #7’s setuptools/distutils debate,and other fixes.
  • User ‘eryksun’, for guidance on correctly instantiating ctypes.windll.
  • Matthew McCormick for politely pointing out a longstanding crash on non-Win.
  • Ben Hoyt, for a magnificent fix under 64-bit Windows.
  • Jesse at Empty Square for submitting a fix for examples in the README.
  • User ‘jamessp’, an observant documentation fix for cursor positioning.
  • User ‘vaal1239’, Dave Mckee & Lackner Kristof for a tiny but much-needed Win7fix.
  • Julien Stuyck, for wisely suggesting Python3 compatible updates to README.
  • Daniel Griffith for multiple fabulous patches.
  • Oscar Lesta for a valuable fix to stop ANSI chars being sent to non-ttyoutput.
  • Roger Binns, for many suggestions, valuable feedback, & bug reports.
  • Tim Golden for thought and much appreciated feedback on the initial idea.
  • User ‘Zearin’ for updates to the README file.
  • John Szakmeister for adding support for light colors
  • Charles Merriam for adding documentation to demos
  • Jurko for a fix on 64-bit Windows CPython2.5 w/o ctypes
  • Florian Bruhin for a fix when stdout or stderr are None
  • Thomas Weininger for fixing ValueError on Windows
  • Remi Rampin for better Github integration and fixes to the README file
  • Simeon Visser for closing a file handle using ‘with’ and updating classifiersto include Python 3.3 and 3.4
  • Andy Neff for fixing RESET of LIGHT_EX colors.
  • Jonathan Hartley for the initial idea and implementation.

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